Can you …….
Chang gave 2. I did so c. I did give too d. Can you tell me the …… of this dress?
Tin liên quan
It is too early in the …… to expect the tourists to the town. There b. That c. Prehistoric man the first steps in building civilization. One way in which management can try to align these goals would be to: Which of the following is something owners might do to influence employees to achieve organizational goals? Firms promote goal congruence by: What is the first step in the decision-making process? In the planning and control cycle, the Plan stage deals with: Which of the following is not one of the four steps in the decision making process?
Which of the following best describes the nature of control decisions of the planning and control cycle? She discovered that some of the members of the sales department were inflating their expense reports in order to receive more money from the company. Which of the following outside forces stop an individual from unethical decision making? Which of the following is not an example of how companies provide guidance regarding ethical standards? Which of the following is not a provision of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of? The standards of ethical conduct for members of the IMA include standards relating to: Which of the following is not a key difference between managerial accounting and financial accounting?
The primary role of accounting is to: Which one of the following is a characteristic of managerial accounting? The main responsibility for ethical behavior rests on: Which of the following is a correct hierarchical relationship among positions in an organization? Which law mandates that the financial statements of the organization are accurate and complete when filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission? Which of the following organizations advocates on behalf of its members before the government and standard setters?
Đe cuong on tap Mac - Lenin HP2 (co dap an)
Which one of the following is a primary user of managerial accounting? Which one of the following is considered a stage of the planning and control cycle? Which of the following is not a decision maker outside the firm? The two classes of decision makers who rely on accounting information are: The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of requires that: Ethical standards are often considered difficult to enforce.
Which one of the following is a good approach to ensuring ethics are followed? ExpandableListView is used for a. Simplified tree representation b. Tree generation c. Tree creation d. Tree deletion The……application is an email monitoring application a. Mail b. Southern villages were established later than those in the North and were generally more open and loose in structure.
Luong's argument poses a serious challenge to class-based analysis, such as Martin Murray's as well as Samuel Popkin's political-economy approach to understanding rural Vietnam. The consensus among historians of Vietnam is that French rule greatly impoverished the rural population, seventy percent of which in the s were poor peasants, tenant farmers, and agricultural labourers. Tradition and Transformation in Nodh Vietnam.
The second was the introduction of private property, which led to the large accumulation of land by the wealthy and the increasing dispossession of land among the poor. The last was the penetration of the cash economy in commercial exchanges and in the tax system.
81 Cau Hoi Va Dap
Historians Pham Cao Duong and Ngo Vinh Long have both provided the standard texts for the 'immiseration' of the Vietnamese peasantry during the French colonial period. Relying heavily on the findings of colonial geographers, ethnographers, and economists, such as Pierre Gourou and Yves Henry, Pham Cao Duong's book paints a grim picture of the peasantry under colonial rule.
He presents a sketch of the 'precolonial' period, in which efforts were made by Vietnamese kings to provide for the people as a contrast to the harsh colonial days. Long's translations of excerpts of Vietnamese literature are meant to give readers a glimpse of colonial reality particularly from a poor peasant's perspective. The literary material complements the findings that both Duong and Long present, and provides a vivid illustration of the hardship and exploitation peasants suffered at the hands of the wealthy village bullies and the colonial rulers.
Both Duong and Long, however, present their statistical and literary sources as an accurate reflection of reality as opposed to part of an elite 4 5 Marr, Vietnamese Tradition on Trial, pp.
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University Press of America, The original Vietnamese edition, Thuc trang cua gioi nong dan Viet Nam duoi thoi Phap thuoc, was published in MIT press, Nguyen-Marshall-Chapter Two 20 discourse on poverty that might shed more light on the elite who produced the knowledge than the subject itself. The limitation of colonial knowledge about rural Vietnam has been noted by John Kleinen, whose review article on French and Vietnamese cultural anthropologists and rural sociologists of the colonial period examines the socio-political context in which much of the rural research was conducted.
For example, although Gourou's work was not commissioned by the colonial government, the "dividing line between these studies and those written on contract remained quite thin. Consequently, early Vietnamese ethnography shared basic colonial assumptions about Vietnamese villages, such as their static nature, and also helped to "reif[y] elements of 'the Vietnamese village'". Nguyen-Marshall-Chapter Two 21 ordinary people suffered from colonial rule, becoming more vulnerable to economic instability, the focus of this dissertation is on the elite and its treatment and representation of this problem.
Poverty in Western European Historiography In contrast to Vietnamese historiography, where there has not yet been any study devoted to the intellectual history of poverty, there is for European historiography a sizable body of literature that examines the intellectual and social history of poverty and poor relief.
Tài liệu câu trắc nghiệm giao tiếp tiếng anh có đáp án
In general, the various historical studies on poverty in Europe focus on changes in attitudes toward the poor, the meanings of poverty, the treatments of the poor, and the level of state intervention in poor relief. There is a consensus among historians that the definitions and categorizations of poverty changed overtime depending on the socio-economic, religious, and political climate, and thus the nature of and attitude toward poverty relief also changed.
Stuart Woolf wrote: Concepts of poverty have shifted far more than the composition of the poor over the centuries, even since the early modern period. They are revealing indicators of the deeper values and often irrational motivations underlying both popular and elite attitudes. Methuen, , p. Nguyen-Marshall-Chapter Two 22 Similarly, Gertrude Himmelfarb's writing shows that attitudes toward the poor in nineteenth-century England swung from repressive to sympathetic. Writings on European history also reveal the multiple levels of meanings the word "poverty" connoted for their contemporary societies.
Robert Jutte's work, for example, shows that in the early modern period the word "poor" did not only mean the opposite of "rich" or "wealthy", but carried with it connotations of the person's social relationship, circumstances, and character. In other words, it was "evaluative, saying that a person is such or so circumstanced, as to excite one's compassion or contempt. Geremek states: Now, as the huge mass of beggars and unemployed began to impinge on the collective consciousness, poverty came to be perceived as harmful to the public good, and was divested of its previous function.
It became important to the various European societies at large that distinctions between 'deserving' and 'non-deserving' the 'true' and 'idle' were 5 5 Gertrude Himmelfarb, The Idea of Poverty: England in the Early Industrial Age. Cambridge University Press, , p. A History. Blackwell, , p. Nguyen-Marshall-Chapter Two 23 made and that assistance was given only to the former category. In general, the early modern period saw the enlargement of the secular state's role in poor relief, increasing rationalization, bureaucratization, and professionalization of relief work and the importance placed on education and training in helping the poor.
Therefore, institutions to house and confine the 'idle' poor were established throughout Europe during this time. Basil Blackwell, With the increase in the number of poor and the growth of the notion that poverty was a 'problem', central governments were forced to become involved in administrating poor relief. Although poor relief was becoming increasingly secularized, the notion of poverty remained fraught with moral judgments, with the dominant thought positing that work and discipline would solve the problem of poverty. Of concern to this dissertation is how European, and French in particular, intellectual and social histories of poverty affected how French colonial administrators and writers approached the issue of poverty in Vietnam.
How did the legacy of the French Revolution and its humanitarian and democratic ideals translate in a colonial setting? How did the Enlightenment concept of the responsibilities of the state interact with the Vietnamese expectations of Confucian rulers? Nguyen-Marshall-Chapter Two 25 Constructing Poverty While it may be true that poverty has always been a problem for human civilizations, defining it remains a problem. Amartya Sen, foremost analyst of famine and poverty, identifies five approaches to the concept of poverty.
According to Sen, while this approach, which focuses on the most basic nutritional needs of a person, is problematically vague, it remains central to understanding poverty in the Third World. The second is the inequality approach, which measures the disparity in society, not poverty.
Sen argues that this approach is inadequate, for poverty and inequality are not the same thing. The last three approaches are: Sen criticizes these approaches for not getting to the point, that there is "an irreducible core of absolute deprivation in our idea of poverty The notion of poverty has not been spared the b ' Amartya Sen, Poverty and Famines. An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Clarendon Press, , Chapter One. Concepts and Reality. Aldershot Great Britain: Avebury Press, , chs. Critics of contemporary developmental practices spearheaded much of the demolition of the notion of poverty.
Geographer Jonathan Crush, in the introductory article for Power of Development, outlined the agenda of the postmodernist critique of development [To focus] on the vocabularies deployed in development texts to construct the world as an unruly terrain requiring management and intervention; on their stylized and repetitive form and content, their spatial imagery and symbolism, their use and abuse of history, their modes of establishing expertise and authority and silencing alternative voices; on the forms of knowledge that development produces and assumes; and on the power relations it underwrites and reproduces.
As a result, countries in Asia, Africa, and South America began seeing themselves as "underdeveloped". While not denying the existence of hunger and malnutrition, Lakshman Yapa argues that poverty is socially constructed from a complex relationship consisting of "ideas, matter, discourse and power": London and New York: Routledge, , p.
The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. Princeton University Press, , p. Nguyen-Marshall-Chapter Two 27 it; discourse is deeply implicated in creating poverty insofar as it conceals the social origins of scarcity.
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For example, the binary distinction between the social scientist subject and the poor object focuses attention on the poor, while not considering how the subject itself is implicated in the problem: There is no coherent body of phenomena called poverty whose inner nature can be revealed by studying people who are deemed poor. The causative relations of poverty exist in a dense network of scarcity-inducing discursive and nondiscursive relations. Rahnema argues that since almost all definitions of poverty revolve around the idea of "lack" or "deficiency", "perhaps not a single human being could be found who would not feel 'lacking' in something.